Egypt is a Northern African country, home to one of the world’s earliest civilization. The country’s historic background makes it one of the leading tourist destinations in the world. Egypt became a British colony in 1882 and attained its independence on 28th of February 1922.

Independence in government brought about years of political instability which resulted in the then King “Farouk I” was forced to relinquish his position as head of the country in 1952. General Muhammad Naguib became the first president of the newly founded Egyptian republic in 1953. He was replaced a year later by Gamal Abdel Nasser.


Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The country is divided into 26 governorates: Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma’iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, As Suways, Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa’id, Dumyat, Janub Sina’, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina’, Suhaj

Egypt Economy:
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Egyptian economy. Farming concentrated along the banks of the Nile river produces: cotton, rice, wheat, corn, beans, fruit and vegetables. Livestock rearing is also common and includes: cattle, sheep, goats and water buffalo.

Natural resources: petroleum and natural gas.


The key industries are: food processing, tourism, chemicals, construction, textiles, cement, metal works and hydrocarbons.


The Egyptian Pound (EGP) is the title of the Egyptian Currency. The currency has been in circulation since 1836. One pound is equivalent to 100 Piastres.

Flag of Egypt:

Flag of Egypt
Flag of Egypt

The present day Egyptian Flag was adopted on the 4th of October 1984. The first official flag was adopted in 1923 when the country attained independence from the United Kingdom. This was replaced between 1958 and 1972 by the flag of the short-lived “United Arab Republic” (consisting of Syria and Egypt).


The red color represents the years before the revolution in 1952; symbolizing the armed struggle for independence from Great Britain. The white color represents the 1952 revolution which deposed King Farouk without bloodshed.

The black represents the end of oppression of the people of Egypt in the hands of the British colonialists and the monarchy.

Map of Egypt:

Map of Egypt
Map of Egypt

Egyptian People:
Egypt has a population of 78, 887, 007 people and is one of the most populous countries in Africa. The main ethnic groups residing in the country are; Egyptian, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin and Beja. Others are European, Greek and Armenian.

Religion: Islam is the main religion practiced by about 90% of the country’s population. Other religions are Coptic and Christianity.

Languages: Arabic is the official and national language in Egypt. English and French are widely spoken by the educated class.

Sports in Egypt:
Egypt is a country with a proud sporting culture. The country is one of the major soccer powerhouses and this was most recently reflected at the 2006 Africa Nations Cup which the country successfully hosted and won.

Soccer is the most popular team sport and the national team; “the Pharaohs” were the first African nation to take part in the world cup in 1934. The team also participated at the 1990 world cup in Italy. The team won the first Africa Cup of Nations in 1957 and followed this up with wins in 1959, 1986, 1998 and 2006.

The main soccer clubs; Zamalek and Al Ahly not only dominate the national scene, but are regarded as amongst the best soccer clubs in Africa.

Egypt Currency:
The Egyptian Pound (EGP) is the title of the Egyptian Currency. The currency has been in circulation since 1836. One pound is equivalent to 100 Piastres.


Coins: 5, 10, 20, 25, 50 Piasters and 1 Pound

Banknotes: 5, 10 ,25, 50 Piastres; 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 Pounds

Foreign exchange:

Foreign exchange facilities are available against major currencies. Transactions can be handled by most major banks in Cairo as well as towns around the country. The Cairo airport also has money exchange bureaus.

Egypt Facts & Figures:
– Location: Northern Africa, off the Mediterranean Sea, to the north of Sudan, east of Libya.
– Capital City: Cairo.
– Population: 78, 887, 007.
– Other major towns and cities: Alexandria, Port Said, Aswan.
– Religion: Islam, Christian, Coptic.
– Languages: Arabic is the country’s official language though English and French are widely spoken.
– Currency: Egyptian Pound (EGP).

Public Holidays in Egypt:
The dates for the following religious public holidays may vary in each calendar year: Coptic Christmas Day, Coptic New Year, Islamic New Year, Coptic Easter and Ramadan.

Other Public Holidays:

-April 25th : Sinai Liberation Day
-May 1st: Labour Day
-June 18th: Liberation Day
-July 23rd : Revolution Day
-August 15th: Flooding of the Nile
-October 24th: Suez Victory Day
-December 23rd: Victory Day

Egyptian Newspapers:
The following are links to Egyptian newspapers in English online:

– The Daily Star Egypt:
– The Middle East Times:
– Al Ahram Weekly:
– Egypt Today:

Hotels in Egypt:
With a prominent, well developed tourism industry, Egypt is home to a number of quality hotels. These are mainly concentrated in the cities of Alexandria and Cairo. Low cost accommodation options are also available and include; hostels, lodges and motels. Some popular hotels in Egypt are:

Semiramis Intercontinental Hotel:

One of Cairo’s premier hotels, the Semiramis is a five star hotel situated at Corniche El Nil near the Cairo city centre. The hotel offers; a gym, swimming pool, access to shopping centers, high speed internet, air conditioned rooms with satellite tv, restaurant, bar and casino.

Cairo Marriott Hotel and Casino:

Another of the city’s leading hotels, the Marriott is situated on a small island on the Nile River near a number of Cairo’s tourist precincts. The hotel offers a range of quality amenities such as; swimming pool, restaurant, casino, bar, concierge, room service, satellite tv and internet access.

Egyptair is the national airline of Egypt. The airline conducts regular domestic and international flights operating mainly from its key hub; the Cairo International Airport. The airport is government owned and was founded in 1932.

Domestic destinations: Alexandira, Aswan, Taba, Luxor, Abu Simbel, Hurghada, Asiut, Sharm el Sheikh.

Major international destinations: Algiers, Addis Ababa, Accra, Nairobi, Lagos, Casablanca, Beijing, Tokyo, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Dubai, London, Barcelona, New York, Paris, Rome.

Egyptian Mummy:

Mummification in ancient Egypt was the process of preserving a corpse using natural salts. These were then anointed with scented oils.

The mummies were then buried in tombs. Mummification was seen as a means of preserving “eternal life” and was primarily practiced as a ritual for laying Pharaohs to rest.

Some of these can be seen at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo and at special exhibitions in major galleries around the world. Famous Egyptian mummies are; Tutankhamun, Amenhotep III, Ramesses I & II and Thutmose II.

River Nile:
The river Nile is one of the longest rivers in the world; second only to the Amazon in South America. The river is seen as the key to the rise of the ancient Egyptian empire and its banks were some of the first places to be settled then. The annual flooding of its banks provides nearby areas with fertile, mineral rich soils and for centuries, these areas have been used for cultivating a variety of crops.

The river has two main tributaries;

The White Nile, which rises mainly from Lake Victoria in Eastern Africa. This is the largest freshwater lake in Africa.

The Blue Nile; which rises from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian highlands; This is the main tributary of the Nile.

The river empties into the Mediterranean Sea near the city of Alexandria.

The Aswan Dam which is Egypt’s main source for hydro-electricity is built on the Nile and is situated near the city of Aswan.

The Great Pyramids at Giza.
There are no more famous ancient sites within Egypt, or for that matter elsewhere in the world, than the Great Pyramids at Giza. They are, without question, the icon most associated with the Egypt. They have been both the main destination for tourists, and a source of imaginative thought to the world for over three thousand years.

However, there are actually over 100 pyramids in Egypt, many of which are relatively unknown to anyone who is not an ancient Egypt enthusiast. All but a very few are grouped around and near the City of Cairo, just south of the Nile Delta. Otherwise, only one royal pyramid is known in southern Egypt (at Abydos), that being the one built by Ahmose, founder of the 18th Dynasty and Egypt’s New Kingdom. It may have also been the last royal pyramid built in Egypt

Tourism in Egypt:
Tourism is one of the key foreign exchange earners in Egypt. The country’s rich history and culture which was centered primarily along the great River Nile has been a cause for fascination for many. Egypt known as the “land of the Pharaohs” is home to one of the great ancient civilizations. It is regarded as one of the birthplaces of industrialization which included specialized farming and irrigation.

The country is also famed for its Pyramids. Regarded as one of the wonders of the ancient world; these massive man made structures are interesting sites to visit and can be easily viewed; less than an hours drive from the city of Cairo.

Other interesting places to visit are;

The Egyptian Capital; Cairo: this is one of the most modern cities in Africa and is home to some of the best hotels in the country. Cairo also has; traditional markets, modern shopping complexes, sporting venues, restaurants, pubs and cinema halls.

Alexandria: the second largest city in Egypt, Alexandria is fast becoming a popular place to visit. The city offers a variety of sporting and recreational facilities as well as historic sites and monuments.

Consular Services

Egypt Visa:
Most foreign visitors to Egypt are required to have a valid passport and/or visa. Nationals of (Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emritates) do not need a visa to enter the country.

Depending on your means of travel (land or air), you may be able to obtain a visa on arrival. Visa requirements change periodically and for up to date criteria, you should contact your nearest consulate or travel agency.

Embassy Directory:
Egypt Embassies and Consulates in Asia and Australia:

The Embassy of Egypt in Australia
1 Darwin Avenue,
Yarralumla ACT 2600
Tel: 02 6273 4437/4438
Fax: 02 6273 4279

The Embassy of Egypt in China
Chancery: no. 2 Ri Tan Dong Lu
Tel: 86 10 6532 1825/ 2541
Fax: 86 10 6532 5365

The Embassy of Egypt in Japan
1-5-4 Aobadai, Meguro-Ku,
153-0042 Japan
Tel: 03 3770 8022
Fax: 03 3770 8021

Egypt Embassies and Consulates in Europe:

The embassy of Egypt in the United Kingdom
26 South Street London
Tel: 44 0 207 499 3304/2401

The embassy of Egypt in France
56 Avenue Diena
75116 Paris
Tel: 33 1 536 788 30/32
Fax: 33 1 472 306 43

The embassy of Egypt in Germany
Stauffenberg Str 6-7
Tel: 030 477 54 70
Fax: 030 477 10 49

The embassy of Egypt in the Netherlands
Badhuisweg 92
2587CL The Hague
Tel: 31 70 354 4535/2000
Fax: 31 70 354 3304

The embassy of Egypt in Sweden
Strandvagen 35
PO Box 14230, 10440
Tel: 46 8 662 9687
Fax: 46 8 661 2664

Egypt Embassies and Consulates in North America:

The embassy of Egypt in the United States
3521 International Court,
NW Washington DC 20008
Tel: 202 895 5400
Fax: 202 244 4319

The embasy of Egypt in Canada
454 Laurier Avenue,
East Ottawa,
Tel: 613 234 4958/ 4935/4931
Fax: 613 234 9347